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Citation Styles: APA Style

American Psychological Association

The citation style of the American Psychological Association (APA) is used primarily in the social sciences, business, and nursing.

Here, you will find basic APA citation formats for books, print journals, online journals, and websites. For information that is more detailed and specific, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

APA style manual

Additional Tips and Guidelines

  • Author names should always be formatted as "Surname, Initials" with both spaces and periods separating initials.
  • For book and article titles, capitalize only the first word of the title, subtitle and any proper nouns.
  • For journal titles, capitalize every major word.
  • Entries should be double spaced and the second and subsequent lines should be indented. 

APA Citation Format for Books

Basic Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of work if applicable (Edition). Publisher Name. DOI (if available).

Sample Citations:

Decherney, A. H., Nathan, L., Goodwin, T. M., & Laufer, N. (2007). Current diagnosis & treatment obstetrics & gynecology (10th ed.).  McGraw.


APA Citation Format for Periodicals

Basic Format:

Author, C. D., Writer, E. F., & Penner, G. H. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodicalvolume number(issue number), pages. DOI

Sample Citations:

Keating, F. R. (1961). Diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism: Clinical and laboratory aspects. Journal of the American Medical Association,

     178(6), 547-555. doi:10.1001/jama.1961.03040450011003

Nafziger, R., Meseke, J. K., & Meseke, C. A. (2011). Collaborative testing: The effect of group formation process on overall student

     performance. Journal of Chiropractic Education, 25(1), 11-15. doi: 10.7899/1042-5055-25.1.11

APA Citation Format for Webpages

Basic Format:

Author, A. B., & Author, C. D. (Publication date). Title of article or page. URL

Sample Citations:

Ogutu, M. (2014). Raspberries & more.

Wendler, D. (2009, Jan 30). The ethics of clinical research.