American Psychological Association
The citation style of the American Psychological Association (APA) is used primarily in the social sciences, business, and nursing.
Here, you will find basic APA citation formats for books, print journals, online journals, and websites. For information that is more detailed and specific, feel free to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (shown on right), or visit the following link:
Palmer College of Chiropractic is not responsible for the content of the external websites contained in this research guide. The views and opinions of the authors expressed in these external websites do not necessarily state or reflect those of Palmer College of Chiropractic.
APA Citation Format for Books
Author, A. B. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of work if applicable (Edition). City, State: Publisher.
Decherney, A. H., Nathan, L., Goodwin, T. M., & Laufer, N. (2007). Current diagnosis & treatment obstetrics & gynecology (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw.
Haneline, M. T. (2007). Evidence-based chiropractic practice (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Purtilo, R. B., & Doherty, R. F. (2011). Ethical dimensions in the health professions. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
APA Citation Format for Periodicals
Author, C. D., Writer, E. F., & Penner, G. H. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.
Graham, R. L., & Spencer, J. H. (1990). Ramsey theory. Scientific American, 263(1), 112-117.
Keating, F. R. (1961). Diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism: Clinical and laboratory aspects. Journal of the American Medical Association, 178(6), 547-555.
Nafziger, R., Meseke, J. K., & Meseke, C. A. (2011). Collaborative testing: The effect of group formation process on overall student performance. Journal of Chiropractic Education, 25(1), 11-15.
APA Citation Format for Online Journals
Author, C. D., Writer, E. F., & Penner, G. H. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. DOI or Retrieved from URL
Chapman, E., & Bilton, D. (2004). Patients’ knowledge of cystic fibrosis: Genetic determinism and implications for treatment. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 13(5), 369-385. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/218650645?accountid=28366
Detterbeck, F. C., Tanoue, L. T., & Boffa, D.J. (2009). Anatomy, biology and concepts, pertaining to lung cancer stage classification. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 4(4), 437-443. doi: 10.1097/JTO.0b013e31819852ed
APA Citation Format for Websites
Author, A. B., & Blogger, C. D. (Publication date). Title of article or page. Retrieved from URL
Ogutu, M. (2014). Raspberries & more. Retrieved from http://urbanext.illinois.edu/raspberries/
Wendler, D. (2009, Jan 30). The ethics of clinical research. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/clinical-research/
APA Style Guidebook
Additional Tips and Guidelines
- Author names should always be formatted as "Surname, Initials" with both spaces and periods separating initials.
- For book and article titles, capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.
- For journal titles, capitalize every major word.