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A guide to citing books, print and online articles and websites for research purposes. Styles included: AMA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, ICMJE Recommendations, and MLA. Also features a guide to using RefWorks.
Last Updated: May 9, 2017 URL: http://library.palmer.edu/citationstyles Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

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American Psychological Association

The citation style of the American Psychological Association (APA) is used primarily in the social sciences, business, and nursing.

Here, you will find basic APA citation formats for books, print journals, online journals, and websites. For information that is more detailed and specific, feel free to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (shown on right), or visit the following link:

 

Website Disclaimer

Disclaimer: 

Palmer College of Chiropractic is not responsible for the content of the external websites contained in this research guide. The views and opinions of the authors expressed in these external websites do not necessarily state or reflect those of Palmer College of Chiropractic.

APA Citation Format for Books

Basic Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of work if applicable (Edition). City, State: Publisher.

Sample Citations:

Decherney, A. H., Nathan, L., Goodwin, T. M., & Laufer, N. (2007). Current diagnosis & treatment obstetrics & gynecology (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw.

Haneline, M. T. (2007). Evidence-based chiropractic practice (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Purtilo, R. B., & Doherty, R. F. (2011). Ethical dimensions in the health professions. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Additional Resources:

APA Citation Format for Periodicals

Basic Format:

Author, C. D., Writer, E. F., & Penner, G. H. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodicalvolume number(issue number), pages.

Sample Citations:

Graham, R. L., & Spencer, J. H. (1990). Ramsey theory. Scientific American, 263(1), 112-117.

Keating, F. R. (1961). Diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism: Clinical and laboratory aspects. Journal of the American Medical Association, 178(6), 547-555.

Nafziger, R., Meseke, J. K., & Meseke, C. A. (2011). Collaborative testing: The effect of group formation process on overall student performance. Journal of Chiropractic Education, 25(1), 11-15.

Additional Resources:

APA Citation Format for Online Journals

Basic Format:

Author, C. D., Writer, E. F., & Penner, G. H. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodicalvolume number(issue number), pages. DOI or Retrieved from URL

Sample Citations:

Chapman, E., & Bilton, D. (2004). Patients’ knowledge of cystic fibrosis: Genetic determinism and implications for treatment. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 13(5), 369-385. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/218650645?accountid=28366

Detterbeck, F. C., Tanoue, L. T., & Boffa, D.J. (2009). Anatomy, biology and concepts, pertaining to lung cancer stage classification. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 4(4), 437-443. doi: 10.1097/JTO.0b013e31819852ed

Additional Resources:

APA Citation Format for Websites

Basic Format:

Author, A. B., & Blogger, C. D. (Publication date). Title of article or page. Retrieved from URL

Sample Citations:

Ogutu, M. (2014). Raspberries & more. Retrieved from http://urbanext.illinois.edu/raspberries/

Wendler, D. (2009, Jan 30). The ethics of clinical research. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/clinical-research/

Additional Resources:

 

APA Style Guidebook

Cover Art
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association - American Psychological Association Staff
Call Number: BF76.7 .P83 2010
ISBN: 9781433805592
Publication Date: 2009-07-15
Availability: all campuses

 

Additional Tips and Guidelines

  • Author names should always be formatted as "Surname, Initials" with both spaces and periods separating initials.
  • For book and article titles, capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.
  • For journal titles, capitalize every major word.

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