Modern Language Association
The citation style of the Modern Language Association (MLA) is used primarily in humanities research.
Here, you will find basic MLA citation formats for books, print journals, online journals, and websites. For information that is more detailed and specific, feel free to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (shown on right), or visit the following link:
Additional Tips and Guidelines
- Always list author names as "Surname, Given Name," with the only exception being names that come last after "and"
- Capitalize and italicize the complete title of a book, website, or journal
- Article and chapter titles go inside quotation marks
Palmer College of Chiropractic is not responsible for the content of the external websites contained in this research guide. The views and opinions of the authors expressed in these external websites do not necessarily state or reflect those of Palmer College of Chiropractic.
MLA Citation Format for Books
Author, Allison A. and Wanda W. Writer. Book Title. Edition. City of Publication: Publisher, Year Published. Medium.
Decherney, Alan H., et al. Current Diagnosis & Treatment Obstetrics & Gynecology. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw, 2007. Print.
Haneline, Michael T. Evidence-Based Chiropractic Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett, 2007. Print.
Purtilo, Ruth B. and Regina F. Doherty. Ethical Dimensions in the Health Professions. 5th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2011. Print.
MLA Citation Format for Periodicals
Author, Allison A. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume.Issue (Year): pages. Medium.
Graham, Ronald L. and Joel H. Spencer. "Ramsey Theory." Scientific American 263.1 (1990): 112-117. Print.
Keating, F. Raymond. "Diagnosis of Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Clinical and Laboratory Aspects." Journal of the American Medical Association 178.6 (1961): 547-555. Print.
Nafziger, Rita, Meseke, Jamie K. and Christopher A. Meseke. "Collaborative Testing: The Effect of Group Formation Process on Overall Student Performance." Journal of Chiropractic Education 25.1 (2011): 11-15. Print.
MLA Citation Format for Online Journals
Author, Allison A. and Patrick Penner. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume.Issue (Year): page range. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Chapman, Elizabeth and Diana Bilton. "Patients' Knowledge of Cystic Fibrosis: Genetic Determinism and Implications for Treatment." Journal of Genetic Counseling 15.3 (2004): 369-385. Web. Accessed 16 Feb 2014.
Detterbeck, Frank C., Tanoue, Lynn T. and Daniel J. Boffa. "Anatomy, Biology and Concepts, Pertaining to Lung Cancer Stage Classification." Journal of Thoracic Oncology 4.4 (2009): 437-443. Web. Accessed 16 Feb 2014.
MLA Citation Format for Websites
Author, editor, or compiler name. "Title of Webpage." Name of Site. Version number. Publisher or sponsor, date of creation. Web. Date Month Year Accessed. <URL>.
Ogutu, Maurice. Raspberries & More. University of Illinois Extension, 2014. Web. Accessed 16 Feb 2014. <http://urbanext.illinois.edu/raspberries/>.
Wendler, David. "The Ethics of Clinical Research." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University, 30 Jan 2009. Web. Accessed 16 Feb 2014. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/clinical-research/>.